Cross cultural adaptation of the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale from English into Arabic

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Background – Back disability measures are considered important by stake-holders as they offer a means of evaluating the effect of low back pain. The Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) is a commonly-used measure of back disability, but it has only been adapted into four languages.

Method – Using a combination of cross-cultural adaptation guidelines for self-reported measures, health professionals, methodologists and Arabic linguists voluntarily participated in cross cultural adaptation of the QDS. At least three different participants were included in each of four stages.

Results – A pre-final version of the Arabic QDS was developed. The equivalence of the adapted measure to the original QDS version was agreed by examining it from four perspectives: idiomatic, experiential, conceptual and semantic.

Implications – The pre-final version is ready to be tested in almost any Arabic speaking population. This will give the opportunity to gather data in the third most widely spoken language worldwide, representing a target population of more than 500 million people.

Conclusion – The QDS can be cross-culturally adapted into Arabic without losing any concepts of the original scale; this adapted scale is ready for further testing.

Measuring upper limb disability in non-specific neck pain: A clinical performance measure

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Clinically it is common for patients with non-specific neck pain to report problems with upper limb function. Yet the extent of upper limb deficits in patients with neck pain is not well known and there are few measures available to clinicians to help quantify upper limb capacity in patients with neck pain. This paper synthesises and presents the findings of several studies which attempt to quantify the extent of upper limb disability in patients with non-specific neck pain and describes the development, validation and limitations of the Single Arm Military Press (SAMP) test.

The SAMP test is an easy to conduct, brief, economical, performance based measure of upper limb disability which may prove beneficial for use in clinical practice in different cultural or socioeconomic communities, though further validation is required to confirm this.

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